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FIABILIDAD - Definición - Significado

En el caso de las construcciones automovilísticas, la fiabilidad del conjunto del vehículo o de parte del mismo es la probabilidad de funcionar sin inconvenientes por un determinado período en ciertas condiciones de uso.

En cada una de las industrias automovilísticas existe una dependencia, llamada control de calidad, que se encarga del examen de los diversos componentes del automóvil, para controlar su fiabilidad y concordancia con el proyecto, antes de pasarlos a las líneas de montaje; en cambio, la verificación es el órgano encargado del examen de la fiabilidad del producto acabado.

Por tanto, la fiabilidad del producto depende sobre todo del proyecto que debe prever una mecánica con el menor número de componentes, cada uno de los cuales sea lo más seguro posible: esto a menudo se halla en contraposición con exigencias de prestaciones, de peso, de dimensiones, de costes, etc., por lo que las valoraciones son complejas.

Por este motivo, desde hace tiempo, sobre todo en las producciones de grandes series, el estudio de la fiabilidad se basa en la esperanza matemática, en la estadística o en el cálculo de probabilidades. Si se considera la frecuencia /(t) con que se produce la avería en examen, al pasar un tiempo t, se puede definir F(t) = j'/fc) dt, como la función acumulativa de frecuencia de avería en el tiempo t, y R(t) = j'«/(í) dt, la función fiabilidad de uso en el tiempo, del mecanismo en examen.

A la sencillez de exposición general del problema se opone la dificultad de establecer, en mecanismos complejos como los del automóvil, el origen de las averías y, en consecuencia, la homogeneidad de las funciones a examinar, para poder formular modelos matemáticos que representen los fenómenos reales. Las averías se pueden distinguir en casuales, precoces y las debidas al desgaste; el objeto del estudio de la fiabilidad es el de eliminar las averías precoces estudiando términos de rodaje apropiados para algunos elementos mecánicos, reducir las averías casuales previendo incluso las solicitaciones excepcionales y, finalmente, prevenir las averías debidas al desgaste estudiando los tiempos de substitución de los diversos órganos en base a las leyes del cálculo de probabilidades.

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